The essential features of democracy are electoral (Latin.

The essential features of democracy are electoral (Latin.

It is characterized by a charismatic type of leadership with mandatory reliance on the repressive apparatus.

The method of mobilization (the model of government implementation of political decisions and involvement of the population in their implementation) under totalitarianism can be carried out intensively through the creation of intrapsychological enthusiasm, as well as extensive – with the help of repressive and propaganda apparatus.

In totalitarian states, any form of unauthorized action by the population is unacceptable. Totalitarianism requires a person to show active loyalty and devotion to the regime.

As a type of political regime of totalitarianism, the following features are characteristic:

the presence of a universally binding ideology, which proves the necessity of the existence of this regime; general ideologization, denial of the past and present for the sake of a “bright” future; ignoring personal goals and interests for the common goals of the regime; control of political power over all spheres of life of society in general and each individual in particular; lack of legal opposition; state absorption of civil society; lack of pluralism; intolerance of political dissent, severe persecution of any resistance and even personal opinions and justification of any form of violence in this regard; concentration of power in the hands of one leader or party representing the legislature and the executive; state monopoly in the field of economics, subordination of the information space to a political leader or party.

The classic totalitarian states were Hitler’s Germany and the USSR. Moreover, the political regime in the former Soviet Union has gone through the following stages:

1917-1921 pp. – the period of military communism – a totalitarian-authoritarian type of political regime; 1921-1929 pp. – authoritarian regime; 1929-1956 pp. – totalitarian regime; 1956-1985 pp. – the signs of classical totalitarianism disappeared, but in general the regime remained totalitarian.

The decline of the era of totalitarianism in the USSR began during the “Gorbachev perestroika” when the “iron curtain” of ideological monism (Greek monos – one) and the closed nature of society fell.

Authoritarian political regime

Unlike totalitarianism, the authoritarian political regime allows for the existence of limited pluralism in various social spheres, agrees with the existence of certain elements of democracy, such as parliamentary elections, multiparty system. However, its essential features remain the daily threat of repression, the use of the army and punitive authorities.

Authoritarianism (from the Latin autoritas – full power, influence) – a type of political regime characterized by subordination of the subjects of political relations, the presence of a strong center with concentrated power, narrowing the political rights and freedoms of citizens and their associations, strict regulation of their activity, the possibility of violence or coercion.

The main features of authoritarianism:

the predominance in the activities of state bodies of the method of administration, dictation (under authoritarianism, a compromise on the most important political issues is rarely used); strong executive power; concentration of power in the hands of one or more state bodies; implementation of normative functions by executive bodies; narrowing the scope of publicity and election of state bodies; limited civil, political and personal rights and freedoms, legal guarantees of their provision; alienation of the people from power; lack of a single ideology; reliance on the strength and readiness of the authorities to use mass repression at any time; both legal and illegal methods are used in the struggle for power; restriction or prohibition of the activities of associations of citizens opposed to the existing regime; the authorities act at their own discretion (often in violation of the law), guided by their own vision of political expediency.

Depending on the goals, there are different types of authoritarianism:

stabilization, the purpose of which is to preserve the existing system; alternative, typical of countries that have rejected the democratic principles of society.

Authoritarianism is most often established in countries that are transitioning from totalitarianism to democracy. It is characteristic that under authoritarianism there is also a civil society, and in the society itself clear regulation is subject mainly to the political sphere.

Under this political regime, legal opposition is possible in society, and if under totalitarianism it is necessary to constantly prove one’s personal devotion and loyalty to the regime, then under authoritarianism devotion is not obligatory, the main thing is not to openly oppose the regime. Under authoritarianism there is no unified ideology. And due to the destruction of the repressive apparatus and the immaturity of democratic institutions, mobilization opportunities for its use are virtually absent, and society itself is characterized by a higher degree of inertia than under other political regimes.

Despite the fact that the ruling structures are open to various groups, power under authoritarianism is concentrated in the hands of the ruling elite, the electoral system is adapted to the decisions of the executive, democratic principles are not an absolute value, a significant amount of power is in the hands of law enforcement agencies. distorted. The authoritarian countries in different historical periods were the Soviet Union and Italy.

Democratic political regime

The concept of “democracy” is multifaceted. It is used to denote the type of political culture, certain political values, political regime. In the narrow sense, “democracy” has only a political orientation, and in the broad sense – it is a form of internal organization of any social organization.

The classic definition of democracy was given by A. Lincoln: Democracy is the rule of the people, elected by the people, for the people.

A characteristic feature of a democratic political regime is decentralization, the dispersal of power among the citizens of the state in order to give them the opportunity to have a uniform influence on the functioning of government.

A democratic regime is a form of organization of socio-political life based on the principles of equality of its members, periodic election of public administration bodies and decision-making in accordance with the will of the majority.

The main features of a democratic political regime are:

the existence of a constitution that enshrines the powers of government and administration, the mechanism of their formation; the legal status of the individual is determined on the basis of the principle of equality before the law; division of power into legislative, executive and judicial with the definition of functional prerogatives of each of them; free activity of political and public organizations; mandatory election of authorities; delimitation of the state sphere and the sphere of civil society; economic and political, ideological pluralism (prohibitions affect only anti-human ideologies).

In a democracy, political decisions are always alternative, the legislative procedure is clear and balanced, and power functions are ancillary. Democracy is characterized by a change of leaders. Leadership can be both individual and collective, but it is always rational. Democratic regimes are characterized by a high level of public self-government, a predominant consensus in the relationship between government and society.

One of the main principles of democracy is multiparty system. The opposition is always involved in the political process, producing alternative political programs and decisions, and nominating its Candidates for the role of leader. The main function of the opposition under a democratic political regime is to identify alternative directions for the development of society and to compete with the ruling elite.

The essential features of democracy are electoral (Latin elector – voter) competition, the possibility of division of interests, the focus on the consolidation of society. In a democracy, the state functions for the sake of the citizens, and not the other way around, there are conditions for the further development of civil society. Democracy, both in the political and in the universal sense, is the main path, a kind of ideal for the future development of society and human civilization in general.

There are many theories and models of democratic development in foreign and domestic political science. V. Pareto created a model of “elite” democracy, arguing that the transition of society to the industrial stage of development requires the creation of a special professional administrative apparatus, without which democracy is impossible. The urgency of this model was proved by the historical development of society, and was rejected only in the 1940’s and 1950’s, when liberalism prevailed in political activity. According to A. Bentley’s pluralistic theory of democracy (interest group theory), any self-interest group influences the government by trying to achieve its goals through political activity.

A. Bentley’s model was rejected because of the danger of paralysis of power and destabilization. The author of the model of democratic elitism R. Dahl argued that the elites cooperate with each other and determine the right way to solve specific problems.

The ideal of democracy is in principle unattainable, but it is necessary to find a form of political life that would ensure the competition of political forces, the possibility of political consensus.

Many modern scholars link the content of democracy with elites and argue that democracy through elections should give way to the most worthy members of the elite, should protect society from people who have been in power for a long time, prevent excessive concentration of power. Some modern practical politicians actively criticize the interpretation of democracy as the power of the people, warn against the total politicization of the social organism, without doubting, however, that it is democracy that constantly maintains a state of search and self-improvement among the ruling elite. Some scholars (especially in Russia) argue the danger of reducing democracy to the highest ideal.

Countries that prefer democratic development face many not only economic, social, but also political challenges. First of all, these are the problems of modernization of the political system, its adaptation to functioning in a democracy, the creation of democratic political institutions, the solution of humanitarian problems, joining international political organizations, and so on.

Modernization is a gradual and multifaceted process, its task is to find new paradigms in order to mobilize society. Modernization is especially important for transitional societies, which are characterized by a creative constructive lack of ideals; the absence of individuals and leaders consolidating society; a political situation that does not work for the future.

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